Film Transfer8mm to DVD &16mm to Blu-ray Film TransferHome Movies Flash Player-DriveDisc-FREE DVD Player-DriveMiniDV Film Transfer Product8mm Film Transfer Split Screen

Dirty Secrets of VHS Video 8mm to DVD Film Transfer of Home Movies

About Us.
Video Tape Transfers
Dirty Film Transfer Secrets
Page 1
Page 2

Vinegar Syndrome and Mold
Our Film Transfer Products
Our Film Transfer Service

about Film Transfer
Products &
with Pictures
After the transfer:
Now what?
Contact Us:
Request Price Quotation 

Bruce Mayfield Film Transfer and 8mm Film Archive Expert
Bruce Mayfield MBA, MSPsy, BSCS
Computer Scientist and Digital Archivist
doing business as (d.b.a.) &

So you want a movie film transfer -- to DVD; or a video tape transfer -- to DVD? To Preserve them?

Read the next few lines -- then read the line above, again. You WILL notice a paradigm shift in your answer...

News: National Archives Warns writable DVD discs are good only 2 years for data -- 5 years for digital images -- before they WILL begin to fail -- despite "manufacturer's published life expectancy of 10 to 25 years.The (laser)  light-sensitive "dye" (ink) in YOUR DVD platter starts disappearing 2 to 5 years from 'burn date".  In layman's terms, DVD "writable" discs -- with all our photos, and videos -- are made with "disappearing ink".(more later).

Want Proof? National Archives sent this News Letter to their OWN departments -- back in 2007!
 "Read it and weep"!
But did our own government bother to tell US -- about "longevity studies" WE PAID FOR?
Did the National News outlets bother to tell US? This IS BIG NEWS -- affecting millions of people!
Did DVD-R manufactures bother to tell US? After all, they claim DVD-R disc last "decades"!
Did Wal-mart, Costco, Walgreen's, or ANY OTHER "video archive transfer services" WARN ANYONE --
before transferring OUR priceless VHS, Hi8, 8mm film home movies slides, and photographs to DVD-R or CD-R discs?
following National Archive Guidelines - weren't they?

News: Archive Gold DVD-R discs do NOT store data in their "gold layer".  Like ALL other DVD-R discs, "Archive Gold DVD-R discs store data in their "dye layer".  Did you know that 92 percent of ALL DVD-R discs FAILED  longevity test -- due to discoloration in the "dye layer"! Did you know GOLD movie discs scored LOWER than non-Gold discs?  If YOU or anyone you know -- using DVD-R or CD-R disc to store ANY data, you need MAKE THEM READ THESE PAGES. 

This "news" is NOT about  buying anything from me.  It IS about HELPING a lot of FOLKS -- in a very real and meaningful way!

Proof: Here is one  study -- presented by the US National Archives -- and part of the Canadian and German Archives. Keep in mind, "DVD-R" and "DVD movie" discs are NOT the same DVD discs.  "Movie DVDs" save data into the "metal layer" only.  DVD-R discs store data in the "dye layer" only -- and the metal layer "only reflects" light that is NOT blocked or filtered by the "dye layer", Again, "read it and weep".

News: DVD-R discs last only 1/3 as long as CD-R discs. (More later.) Do NOT assume longevity on CD-R disc and DVD-R disc are "the same"!

News: DVDs and Blu-rays are going the way of Music CD discs and tapes -- due to a "technology shift" to Internet Video.  The DVD player you NOW own, is most probably the last one you will ever own -- and try buying one in 5 year. Archiving for a DVD player (DVD technology) now is like archiving to VHS video tape -- 10 years ago (more later).

News: The best way to "doom" your home film and video images, is transfer them DVD -- even with a backup to a hard drive (more later). 

News: Video master files on a hard drive do NOT constitute "a video archive"  -- they too, are DOOMED! (later)

This all maybe  News to YOU, but these "News Flashes" are just long known "Dirty Little Secrets" -- of both the Film Transfer Industry and the Video Tape Transfer Industry..
BUYER BEWARE -- SHOPPING IN THESE INDUSTRIES! If you do NOT know these Dirty Little Secrets, the Film and Video Transfer Industry --  "transfer mills" -- as I call them --  will defraud you, in my opinion, and let your home movies and home videos self-destruct in 5 short years

I am a Computer Scientist & Digital Archivist. My company offers State-of-the-Art Video Archive Solutions. And, yes, we make thousands of physical DVDs and Blu-rays -- and load hundreds of hard drives -- each year.  What you need to know -- and what we disclose --  is that a DVD, Blu-ray, and a hard drive, by themselves, in and of themselves, are "the sure path to destruction" for your home movies. You need more -- to have a "true video archive" -- and you need an "archive strategy". Ironically, we do not charge extra for "vital archive services" -- that give your home movies a "new life" and a "chance to survive" -- indefinitely.

We are currently in a "technology shift" to Disc-FREE devices and Internet Video Streams. Your home movies MUST survive in this new world.  On my website you are going to find Disc-FREE DVDs and Disc-FREE Blu-rays. You will find that ALL your video storage devices -- hard drives, SSD, flash drives, memory cards, etc. -- become "video players" -- with "tutorials" (on how to use them). You will find this technology is a reality -- here and now -- with names like DISC-Free DVDs,  Solid State DVDs™, Home Movies Player-Drive -- for Mac & PC - and much more -- at prices you would pay for "just a DVD".

VIDEO TAPE TRANSFER: Click on this link, If you are ONLY INTERESTED IN VIDEO TAPE TRANSFER - Video8, Hi8, D8, or VHS.

We currently do NOT offer DVD conversion services -- except by special request. We have done this for "our old clients",
and it is "very much" like our "Video Tape Transfer" service. You may request a quote on DVD Transfer in the "notes" section of my quote.
If your DVDs come FROM  your film transfer of old "Movie Films" -- by another company --  even a "transfer mill" -- then we can "Normalize" both the "speed" and "motion" in our conversion -- just like for our "Movie Film Transfer" clients.


Film Transfer Dirty Secrets & Guide": Super 8 transfer, 8mm transfer, 16mm transfer

Read Film Transfer "Dirty Secrets Guide™" -- for free. Even if you don't use my service for Super 8,  8mm film or 16mm film transfer, this Film Transfer Dirty Secrets Guide™ exposes "8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™" . They want you "focused" on "film transfer equipment" -- they use. They do not want you to look at the challenges of "archiving" your home moves -- beyond the end of this decade -- say nothing of this century; but that is exactly what we do -- everyday -- for our clients.

The following are ...

Dirty "Film Transfer" Secrets We Expose -- and MORE!       Click to show or hide details(SH19)
  1. Film Transfer with Telecine Projectors -vs.- Film Transfer with Telecine Scanners  Do true Film Transfer SCANNERS  exist?
  2. Digital Algorithmic Interpolation (DAI): THE NEW state-of-the-art Film Transfer method -- most "mills" don't have.
  3. The Hyper-Formatting™ Scam? -- Film Transfer of tiny 8mm film to huge, over-sized 2K, 4K video formats. Recipe for artifacts!
  4. "Best-Fit™ YOUR "film format" -- to match YOUR "video format"™-- for GREAT digital masters.
  5. Choosing Video Master-File™ formats for Film Transfer: DV, DVCam, Apple Intermediate, and Apple ProRes, etc.
  6. AVI or QuickTime are NOT video formats: They are "stupid" Film Transfer "sales assumptions"  -- "transfer mills" want you to make!
  7. Film Transfer "directly" to MPEG-2, MPEG-4, AVCHD, H.264 / MPEG4, H.264 HD. Grab your wallet and run!
  8. Film Transfer MYTHS about DVD & Blu-ray.  Film Transfer to FAKE Blu-rays (and how to spot them).
  9. Film Transfer: The future for DVDs and Blu-rays™ -Vs.- The NEW "DISC-Free" DVD technology!
  10. Film Transfer for Social-Media™ -- iPod, Sony PS Portable, Apple TV, iPhone, facebook, YouTube, etc.
  11. Film Transfer Warning: "Film Synchronized to Video" does NOT mean synchronization at Real-Life Speed nor Real-Life Motion !
  12. The "New Disc-FREE World"  has arrived! Liberation of a DVD from its "disc". Our new Solid State DVD & Player.


For Example: Your
8mm to DVD or Super 8 Film Transfer Consumer Rights:

Dirty Film Transfer Secret™: When you "pay" to have a DVD made "correctly" -- from your 8mm film or video tape --
you are ACTUALLY paying for 3 products:

1) A Video Master File made from your Standard 8mm or Super 8 Film or VHS/Hi8 video tape; and
2) a DISC-Free DVD -- called a "disc image" -- "RENDERED" -- from your "video master file"; and,
3) a physical DVD disc --  "CLONED" from your Disc-FREE DVD "disc image".
This is how ALL "professional movie film studios" make DVDs. 

The 1) Master File and 2) the DVD DISC-Image are "Copyright Assets" -- that you AUTOMATICALLY OWN
because they go INTO the DVD DISC that you pay to have "made". 

Charging you "extra" for YOUR "Video Master File" is a "double charge" -- "a con", "a rip-off".
Charging you "extra" for YOUR "DVD Disc Image" is a "double charge" -- "a con", "a rip-off".

Only in the event that YOU do NOT want a physical DVD - and the "master file" becomes the "end product" -- is a separate charge "ethical".
More on "Copyright Assets" and the "Pricing Ethics" later.
We are the only company that offers an "ethical breakdown" of Copyright Assets as "component-products" of your "end products".
This is why, in most cases, we only charge "our cost" -- of DVD, packaging, and labeling -- for extra VD disc copies.

OTHER "Rip-offs": "A VIDEO RIP" (internet slang for "a video rip-off" -- a "deviant method" used to "steal video")
When I say, "ripping video", I mean the DVD is made using a "deviant method" -- a method that "deviates" from "professional methods and standards".
"Ripping video" should make you think of 2  generations of video loss
1) from the -- "on-the-fly" -- "analogue-to-digital" conversion and
2) from the  -- "on-the-fly" -- "digital video-to-DVD" conversion.
This is called "crushing video" onto a DVD.

This is why a VHS-to-DVD recorder ALWAYS looks worse that the original video tape. The video tape is captured to the DVD  "on the fly" -- frame-by-frame -- without any Group-Of-Pictures (GOP) analysis or GOP rendering.  More on this later..

A "Professional Grade DVD" is a two-pass method.
Mehod 1: Video is "analyzed" and "organized" into many Groups Of Pictures (called a GOP) -- from a "master video file" --
to determine  I-frame, P-frame, B-frame, D-frame pictures (details later).
Method 2: Video is then actually "rendered" into  I-frame, P-frame, B-frame, D-frame pictures -- AT THE HIGHEST RESOLUTIONS POSSIBLE.

Most "film and video transfers" are
1) directly "ripped" to a DVD recorder; or
2) indirectly "ripped" to a DVD recorder -- by "playing" and "capturing" -- not "rendering" -- a "master file" -- on-the-fly to a DVD recorder --

Both of these methods are "deviant methods" and "degrading" to the "final DVD".
These are the common practices of 8mm to DVD or Super 8 Film Transfer Mills.
This one activity alone would define a studio as a "Transfer Mill".

We use a "Two-Pass DVD DISC-Image Rendering" method --
from a high resolution, enhance video master file --
to make our clients' DVD DISC-Images --
which are "burned" into their
DVD disc platters -- and
Solid State DVD product -- and
Hard Drive -- which is also a DVD DISC-Image Player..

Danger of Legal Damages from an 8mm to DVD or Super 8 Film Transfer Mill::
If you PAY to have your DVDs made -- "assuming" they are "rendered" and then "cloned" -- "the right way", and
If you are "denied" "Video Master Files" -- or if you are "not offered" "Video Master Files" -- or if you decline "Video Master Files", instead of "pay for them twice",
then WHEN your DVD fails -- and your DVD WILL FAIL -- and 8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills" KNOW your DVD WILL FAIL --
then, in my opinion, you "suffer willful or at least negligent damages" -- but it will be YOUR fault! All you "asked for", was a DVD!
Even though 8mm to DVD or Super 8 Film Transfer Mills fail to "disclose" ALL THE ABOVE -- which only I do (more on this later).

Your "DAMAGES" can be especially bad if
1) you are falsely lead to believe you DVD is an "archive" -- which most 8mm to DVD or Super 8 Film Transfer Mills "imply": and,
2) your 8mm film or Super 8 Home Movies film "goes bad" or
3) you 'throw away" your Home Movies film -- because you think you don't need your 8mm or Super 8 film any more -- because your Home Movies are "on DVD".

There is A LOT MORE -- YOU NEED TO KNOW about these 2 DIRTY FILM TRANSFER SECRETS -- and MANY MORE Secrets -- just as ALARMING!

(click here for ==>)  Dirty "Film Transfer" Secrets -- AND HOLD ON TO YOUR HAT!

Dirty Film Transfer Secrets™ Buyers Guide™ - 16mm  film Super 8 film 8mm film :

Click to show or hide details:(SH15)

Home of  for 8mm film, 16mm film, and Super 8 film - Film Transfer YOU ARE HERE NOW.
If you are here for synthetic 24 fps16mm film, you are at the wrong Film Transfer service -- unless you want a 15fps synchronizaton for FX and speed alterations.
If you have profound vinegar syndrome, we can refer you to the last company left that can work with your  8mm film, 16mm film, Super 8 film with vinegar syndrome.
About Us.
NOTE: This Site Map is the same as the Navigation bar on the left side of each page.
Dirty Film Transfer Secrets -- of 8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™ (giving you just what you ask for):
8mm Film Transfer Dirty-Secrets: Page 1        16mm, Super 8, 8mm Film Transfer: Overview and Summary of Dirty Film Transfer Secrets of 8mm Film Transfer Industry
8mm Film Transfer Dirty-Secrets: Page 2        16mm, Super 8, 8mm Film Transfer: In-Depth Dirty Film Transfer Secrets of 8mm Film Transfer Industry -- will blow your mind!
1.Resolution  Best-Fit™ the resolution of your tiny 8mm with that of your 8mm Film Format -- grain to pixels - for the best Film Transfer. Hyper-Formatting film will kill true resolution.
2.Media        The good bad and ugly of different media -- including 8mm film transfer to DVD
3.Archiving    Film Transfer to DVD is NOT enough!  In the absence of your 8mm film, you MUST have a near-equivalent Digital-Film Master Video.  DVD alone will not do!
4.Transfers    8mm Film Transfer is only ONE STEP in a Multi-step process to Multiple mediums -- if done right.

5.Innovation   Our newest Solid State Archive Solutions -- Home Movies Player
Player-Drives -- using State-of-the-Art DISC-Free™ DISC-Image technology.
Vinegar Syndrome and Mold
Our Products-- made from YOUR 16mm, Super 8, 8mm Film Transfer State-of-the-Art DISC-Free™ DISC-Image technology on Solid State Products you will NOT see anywhere else.
Our Service -- Private and Subcontractor Accomplishments    We have produced some of the great "National Treasures" of our nation; we can add you name to the list.
about Products & Services
Testimonials -- On 16mm film, 8mm film, Super 8 film transfers. Unsolicited comments AFTER "Paying and Approving" our film transfer service.
After the film transfer :Now what do I do?
Contact Us and Request Your 16mm, Super 8, 8mm Film Transfer Price Quotation DVDs PLUS State-of-the-Art DISC-Free™ DISC-Image technology on Solid State Products -- at DVD only prices! 
I will do something for you, if you do something for me:
Special Promotional Offer

16mm film 8mm film Super 8 film Film Transfer Comparisons

To Arm For Beginners
A little Primer on 16mm, Regular 8mm and Super 8mm Film
1) Identify 8mm or 16mm film you have, and
2) Basic "Film Transfer" Speeds for your film.

Click to show or hide details:(SH05)

The following tutorial on 16mm, Regular 8mm, and Super 8mm film -- which will help you both  identify and date the
16mm, Regular 8mm, and Super 8mm film movie films that you have -- for film transfer.

How to Identify, Date, and Speed-rate Your Movie Film for Film Transfer::
Picture (Above) shows examples of "small format" movie films

16mm movie film,
Regular 8mm film (also called Standard 8mm film) and
Super 8 movie film.

16mm was invented before Regular 8mm and Super 8mm films.  16mm film was made from "hand-milled" silver halide -- the grains of which were very large compared to later films.  Although 16mm is 4 times the size of Regular 8mm film and Super 8mm film, the resolution of the film is comparable to that of Super 8mm and some later dating Also, 16mm film was shot and run at 16fps in the early 1900's.  Modern versions of 16mm film are run at 24 fps -- which actually makes 16mm film a "hybrid" format -- with one foot in the "small format film industry"  and one foot in the "large format film industry". 

It is because of this dual role of 16mm film, that '8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™ (giving you just what you ask for) can "get away with" talking about film and equipment in broad terms and then implying that what is "good" for large format films -- like captures with "irregular pull-down patterns" -- is likewise, "good" for "small format films".  In truth the converse ONLY is true, that what is "good" for "small format films" -- like synchronizatons at "15fps" -- is also "good" for "large format films" -- but NOT VISA VERSA.

Regular 8mm Film and 16mm Film

Rough Dating of Movie Film:
16mm film - silent -- 1923 to Early 1960's.

16mm film - sound - 1935 to present.
Regular 8mm film, Standard 8 mm -- Late 1932 thru 1990s.
Super 8 film -- Introduced in 1965 to present.

Correct Film Transfer Speeds:
Silent 16mm film - silent -15 fps or 16 fps (with exceptions)
Regular 8mm film - silent -15 fps or 16 fps.
NOTE: 8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™ (giving you just what you ask for) transfer this at 20 fps
Introducing a 20% "real-time" distortion - 12 minutes lost per hr.

Super 8mm Film

Super 8 Film was "shot" usually 18 fps; commercially 24 fps.
Super 8 Movie cameras and projectors had "variable speeds".

Correct Film Transfer Speeds:
Super 8 film "silent", 18 fps
Super 8 film "sound", 18 fps OR 24 fps.
NOTE: 8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™ (giving you just what you ask for) transfer this at 20 fps
Introducing a 10% "real-time" distortion - 6 minutes lost per hour.

NOTSuper 8 Film Sound for Film TransferE: Super 8 Sound Film has "magnetic" sound tracks glued on both edges of the "under-side" of the film which looks like 2 copper colored stripes
(see to left).




16mm film Optical Sound track for Film TransferCommercial Film: Super 8 Sound and 16mm Sound: Usually "optical" sound tracks.

(Black squiggly tracks: right)==>

Both 16mm movie film and Super 8 movie COMMERCIAL films, were "shot and run" at 24 fps - ONLY.
Most domestic clients, with rare exceptions, do NOT have "commercial films" with "optical sound tracks".


16mm film 8mm film Super 8 film for Film Transfer
Holes Along the Edge of the Film
(see picture above):
The size of the holes are the same for both 16mm film and 8mm film.
Some 16mm has only one set of holes -- like Regular 8 film. 
Spacing of the holes in 16mm movie film is different than Regular 8mm film -- also called  Standard 8 film.

Super 8 movie film has smaller holes - less than half the size of Regular 8mm movie film. Spacing is different.
Correct Film Transfer is very different for each.

Reels or Spools (see Regular 8 mm pictures below):

Hole in Center of Reel or Spool:
Early 16mm and Regular 8mm film: the hole in a spool was
1) the size of a number 2 pencil  -- on one side of the spool -- and 2) square and roughly the same size -- on the other side of the spool.

Later, 16mm spools standardized with a square hole.
Later, Regular 8mm spools standardized with a round hole -- with a notch on one side of the reel or both.

Super 8 spool: The hole in the spool was the size of your "pinky finger" and round on both sides of the spool.

8mm Film Boxes of "double 8" for 8mm Film Transfer

Standard 8mm movie film, 95 percent of the time, is on a grey plastic, 3 inch spool and came in a Yellow cardboard box -- for mailing.

Double 8 movie film came in a yellow box roughly 1 inch thick.
Single 8 also called Standard 8 came in a yellow box roughly 1/2 inch thick.

Both types of  films -- collectively -- are called Regular 8mm film or 8mm film and, before 1965, usually fond on little grey plastic reels -- with excepts around 1942  (see history below), and 1965 (more follows)..

Super 8 movie film (introduced in 1965) was sold and processed on 50 foot spools -- which were usually a blue cover with a white plastic spool.. Rarely covers were also red, yellow, green, black, and white.

About that same  time (1965), Regular 8mm film began to appear spooled onto white plastic reels with blue covers, too.. The hole in those spools was the size of a number 2 pencil or standard pen. Most easily confused with Super 8 film.

ATTENTION:: It is very common for Regular 8mm film to be on a Super 8 spool and Super 8, on a Regular 8mm spool -- by mistake of family members. When in doubt, look at the film itself and the size of the holes in the film -- not the spool.

HISTORICAL NOTE - TO HELP DATE AND IDENTIFY: Earliest Regular 8mm or Standard 8  film was called Double 8, because it was sold as 25 feet of 16mm film. It was called a "25 foot Double 8".

The tell-tell oversized, yellow box contained a tiny back metal canister -- sealed with black cotton tape -- to protect the brown, unexposed 16mm film inside. 

The 16mm film was "double exposed" -- in 2 passes. Each pass -- exposing the entire length of the 16mm wide film -- but only exposed an 8mm wide strip along the length of the16mm film.

The cameraman would shoot one pass and then flip the 16mm film in the camera -- to shoot the second pass. This accounts for the "flashes of yellow light" half-way through early Regular 8mm films.

At the time of film processing, the 16mm film was developed and then split down the center -- thus creating 2 strips of 8mm film.. The two ends of the (now 8mm) film was glued together in the center and spooled onto
Empty 8mm Film Transfer spools from actual Film Transfer
1) a black or aluminum metal reel (pre-WWII) (left top), or 
2) a cardboard reel (WWII) (center bottom), or
3) a grey plastic reel (post-WWII) (right top)

as a 50 foot spool of 8mm film. This is nice to know if you need to date reels of film.

The Double 8: Standard 8mm reel of film was shipped back to owner in the same oversize yellow box -- now twice the width of the Standard 8mm reel of film inside.

NOTE: Many times the cameraman would forget that the film had already been exposed and flipped -- and would expose the same edge twice.  Thus "double exposures" were created on Double 8 film.





(click here for ==>)  Dirty "Film Transfer" Secrets™ -- 8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™ (giving you just what you ask for) do NOT want you to know!


Click to show or hide details:(SH10)

The "tech note" below  is on film transfer semantics on 16mm, Regular 8mm, and Super 8mm film.  Most readers have some "flavor" of Regular 8mm film or Super 8 film. Therefore, I do not specifically state the words "16mm film" -- every time I mention Super 8 film or Regular 8mm film -- when talking about film transfers to DVD or Master Files. Instead, I just talk about  Regular 8, and Super 8 film to video film transfers  -- with the ASSUMPTION THAT ALL PRINCIPLES APPLY TO 16MM FILM AS WELL.

The same applies to visual and non-visual illustrations -- using  8mm film or Super 8 film or film transfer.  Illustrations about REGULAR 8MM FILM ALSO APPLIES to SILENT 16MM FILM -- as Regular 8mm film -- (see column to the left) in may cases IS SILENT 16MM FILM -- "SPLIT IN HALF -- DOWN THE CENTER" literally.

A 16mm film transfer can be much more complex than a 8mm or Super 8 film transfer -- because 16mm film was used domestically, commercially -- as 16mm silent and 16mm sound -- and shot at 1 of 3 speeds -- even early century 1900s. Also 16mm movie film is OLDER and usually is in some stage of "vinegar syndrome".   After you get a film transfer quote, you are advised to call me about your 16mm film for a free 16mm film transfer "evaluation and consult".

I use Regular 8mm or Super 8 terms generically -- for example:

Super 8mm to DVD,
Super 8mm film transfer,
8mm film to H.264,
Super 8mm film transfer,
Single 8mm movie film to HDTV Blu-ray,
Standard 8mm movie film to video,
Double 8mm movie film to video,
8mm to video,
8mm movie to video,
8mm telecine,
movie 8mm film transfer,
8mm film transfer,
Ektasound 8mm to DVD,
Ektachrome 8mm to DVD,
Kotachrome 8mm to DVD.
Film to video,
Film to Flash Drive,
Film to Hard Drive,
Film to Blu-ray, etc

ALL these film transfer phrases refer generically to some "film to video film transfer process" of converting film to digital video unless otherwise stated specifically.

Even though my film transfer terminology may be specific to a stated gauge of film -- Regular 8mm film, Super 8 film, or 16mm film -- you may expand any reference to any gauge of film into a generalized concept that can be applied to all small film formats -- and film transfers -- UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED

(click here for ==>)  Dirty Film Transfer Secrets -- 8mm to DVD & Super 8 Film Transfer Mills™ (giving you just what you ask for) do NOT want you to know!