16mm 8mm Film & Video Transferred to Virtual-Reality™

8mm 16mm Movie FILM and

Director of Inspiration
and Certified Morkie

The Morkie is a designer breed of dog which is a cross between a purebred Yorkshire terrier and a purebred Maltese. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Morkie

Bruce Mayfield MBA,BSCS
Video Preservationist
Computer Scientist

The Video Preservationist Computer Scientist is a cross between a fuzzy hat rack and granny glasses. He speaks fluent Morkie, and his natural habitat, shown here, is the studio balcony overlooking Eagle Nest Lake, New Mexico - at 8200 feet above sea level. Here, gentle winter breezes reach 35 degrees below zero -- and his fluffy white beard is not optional, helps him blend into the surrounding snow scapes, and provides a cozy, warm place -- where the Morkie can find an occasional snack.

Delivering the Ultimate Video Quality & Video Preservation, Money Can Buy - at ANY Price.

We "ReSurrect, ReStore and ReMaster™ old legacy video images and preserve them "Virtually For EVER™" -- for HDTV, 2K and 4K displays.

Don't just "Transfer";
Virtualize Your Video™!

Antique Movie Films:
8mm, Super 8, Super 8 Sound, 16mm and 16mm Sound

Analogue Video Tape:
VHS, VHS-C, S-VHS, Sony Video8, Sony Hi8

Digital Video Tape:
Sony Digital 8 (D8), MiniDV

Optical Discs:
DVD and Blu-ray

SSD Video Camera Formats:
AVCHD, .MTS, .M2TS, etc.

Post-Production Files
ProRes, .AVI, .MOV -- you name it!

You get modern "Progressive Scan" Video -- Preserved Virtually-For-EVER™.

Post-production Processes Include:

Our video will be
film or video;

Commercial Clients and Domestic Clients, "Pay as You Approve Your Video" -- in your own studio or home -- in affordable production segments. More on this later.

Film Virtualization™ (Also called Virtual Film Transfer™)

"Film Virtualization™" is the "newest evolution" beyond old fashioned "Telecine Film Transfer". We call it a Virtual Film Transfer™.

Film Virtualization™" is a process where images are "freed from" (not "captured to") any one medium.

"Physical Film" becomes "Virtual Film"™ -- without the limitations of any one medium.

The life of the Virtual Video™ image is no longer tied to the life span of the physical medium.

A "Virtual Film Transfer" -- called HomeFlix™ (our domestic brand name) and VirtualFlix™ (our commercial brand name) -- does for "home movies", what Netflix, Apple TV, and PlayStation Vue is doing for the commercial movies and commercial video programming.

This is giant step beyond a "video capture" or just a "video file" on a hard drive. Our "Virtual Diversity"™ of "Virtual DVD Disc-IMAGES"™ -- is truly revolutionary -- and will extend "Virtual DVD" technology for decades.

True Virtualization of a video file (i.e., Virtual Video™ file) means the video file itself is layered inside a "digital container" -- like a virtual disc -- which insolates the video images from the decline of physical media, physical playback devices, or proprietary software -- or being tied to physical hardware or a computer.

Our products are PC Windows and Mac OS X compatible.

Virtualization makes your video "UniVirtually Compatible"™ -- with all the above -- and any technology that will ever be developed in the future!

But all this is just the beginning.

We take Virtualization a step beyond. We layer your entire "video library" in a transparent "virtual drive" -- again another "first". This makes the entire "virtual drive" -- with all your "Virtual Video" -- transportable and portable -- to any other storage device or any other storage medium -- now -- or in the future.

This is a big deal -- as big as "the cloud".

Who are we?

Einstein, is our newest Virtually Staff Member

As for our staff and I...

We are "The Pros" behind clients with affiliation with NBC, Fox, PBS, and other independent productions.

You may have already seen our work on PBS, History Channel, etc.; and in independent documentary videos.

For example:

We are truly honored to work with world class films, and re-earn the privilege each day, to working with the world class clients -- as the leaders in Virtual Video Innovation™.

Our Virtual Video™ Preservation Standards exceed recommendations of the National Archive and Records Administration (NARA) and the Library of Congress (more on this later).

We love working with private clients -- which include movie film investors, film preservationist, church and business historians, sports historians, clubs, declassified military film archivist, and just regular folks, like you!

We treat Legacy Family Videos and Antique Movie Film Preservation as "equally important" -- as our "Commercial Film and Video Preservation" contracts.


Your family history is part of American History! We are going to make sure that your legacy will never be lost -- over the next thousand years!

We have developed the technology and an archive strategy to preserve your family films and family video footage -- Virtually For EVER!™.

Together, we will give all future generations of your family, proof positive, of your family's social and spiritual roots -- and preserve "the times of your life!".

Your Bottom Line: Affordability.

We earn the right, every day, to be First Class and World Class in film and video preservation; HOWEVER, you'll be surprised -- at how little "THE VERY BEST -- MONEY CAN BUY" -- will cost you!

Your family deserves "the best"; and you deserve our "best price".

After you see our price quote, you will have a "frame of reference" -- for the difference -- in going "First Class" and "getting what you pay for" -- as opposed to -- "paying for, what you get" -- to go "Second Class"!

That's not a slick sales quip! Read about The Politics of the Film and Video Preservation Industry -- below. You will see, I am dead serious.

Check out our Bundled Offer for Movie Film and then Contact Us.

Our bundled offer for LEGACY VIDEO TAPE SERVICES -- is included in the quote I will send you at Contact Us.

Home Movies-N-a-Flash™ Drive Product Line:

A "virtual-drive" -- "hosted" on a Flash Drive (for mobility and fun). You can make these yourself, with help from our tutorial, all day long -- for everyone you know. We make you one, to use as a "master".

Home Movies-For-EVER™ Drive Product Line:

FOR the PRESERVATION of 8mm 16mm Film and Video Tape "Virtual Transfers™"

Our Home Movies-For-EVER™ Drives are different from "traditional drives" because they are actually...

Virtual-Products "layered" inside of Virtual Containers which in turn are in a transparent Virtual Drive environment. That's three layers of Virtual Preservation™.


This is called, "Future UniVirtually Compatibily"™

What about DVDs?

We make


We empower YOU - and YOUR FAMILY -- to make all these DVDs, too -- using our on-board tutorial.

Did I mention we make Blu-ray for HDTV, 2K, and 4K, too.

Customized Virtualization:

Watch your "Virtual" Standard 8mm, Super 8 Film, 16mm Film Home Movies on

and many more video products -- customized to YOUR FAMILY needs!

Time To Follow Your Interests:

If you are totally new -- and in the dark -- about telecine and movie film you have, continue reading this page.

If you want to skip the basics, click on your interests below:

Movie Film: 8mm, Super 8, 16mm

Video Tapes and Legacy Optical Discs

Movie Film -- Special Bundled Offer for any Budget

Contact or Call Us for a Price Quote

The Politics of Film and Video Preservation

The Bad News: Every film transfer starts with politics.

Everyone in the Video Preservation Industry knows that archiving video to recordable DVDs was banned -- at the Federal level -- by The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) October, 2007.

The reason for this ruling was DVD recorders were not, and are not, standardized, and leave most recordable DVD disc "almost dead" -- before they stop recording. Thus the life of a disc that could have lasted 40 years, on the shelf, was reduced to 1 to 5 years immediately after being recorded.

Bottom line, a medium with a unpredictable life span of 1 to 5 years, does NOT qualify as "archive worthy" -- according to NARA.

This NARA standard for NOT archiving to DVD is enforced -- at the Federal level -- including the Library of Congress -- to this present day.

Everyone in the Video Preservation Industry also knows that market demand for ALL optical discs is evaporating. New disc technology, like M-disc, can not change the market shift toward solid state technologies -- like the smart phones, SSD, and flash drives. Thus, NARA guidelines stand.

Nonetheless, video preservation companies, including "big box" stores and pharmacies, have been allowed to "archive" family video footage -- to DVD -- for their client base -- for over a decade -- after NARA 2007 guidelines were issued. Millions of people now have a false reliance on recordable DVD disc -- to protect their priceless home movies and photos. Their priceless family films and video tapes are now "ripped" to DVD -- and destined to fail, according to NARA, after 1 to 5 years.

This massive customer base includes poor single mothers and minorities -- who "don't know to ask" -- and were never given "fair warning" -- about NARA 2007 archive guidelines for DVD discs.

In stark contrast, any studio performing "legitimate archive services" for companies like Fox, PBS, NBC, etc., knows they will be sued for damages -- and gross negligence -- if "archive services" for these corporate clients produce ONLY a DVD -- with no "video master files".

Having performed "archive services" for clients affiliated with the corporations above, what I am telling you, is not hearsay nor conjecture.

Bottom line:

"First Class" Commercial Video Preservation

"Second Class" Domestic Video Preservation

Bottom line, the difference between a "First Class" and a "Second Class" video archive service -- is stark -- and very important for you to understand.

Almost all websites you may go to and all websites you have been on -- up to now -- are part of this Dual Class -- Second Class -- Film and Video Preservation Industry. This industry is effectively wiping out the "video history" of the "poor" and "minorities" -- who buy "archive services from "big box" stores and pharmacies.

The Good News: Now, you know; and now you are on the only website that will tell you this -- AND A LOT MORE -- that you will be glad to know!

A "Film Transfer" is also known as a "Video Capture"

The word "capture" implies "bondage" or "imprisonment" of video...

By the way, "recordable DVD discs" have been banned by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for "archive purposes" -- October, 2007 -- and they (NARA) now advise the public -- and thus ALL COMMERCIAL ARCHIVE SERVICES -- TO DO THE SAME.


Telecine Film Transfer (A process; Not a machine)

A "telecine transfer" is a "process" -- not a machine -- for transferring "film frames" to "video frames".

In a professional studio, like ours, a "film-to-video transfer" is a separate process from other post-production processes. The "film transfer machine" is rather simple -- to reproduce authentic images from the movie film.

Post-production processes include

For Example: Our Color Artists can determine "color temperature" of a video clip by simply by determining the "time of day" based on the "length of shadows".


These "Trick of the Trade" -- separate a

Respectfully, we price our Telecine and Virtual Film Transfer Services so that they ARE AVAILABLE to people of all income levels. We "work with" many "fixed income" clients -- adjusting our production cycles to their payment plan. Call us for a confidential consultation.

Film Virtualization™ or Virtual-Film Transfer™

"Film Virtualization™" is the "newest evolution" beyond a "Telecine Film Transfer" (above).

Film Virtualization™" is a process where images are "freed from" (not "captured to") any one medium.

The life of the Virtual Video™ image is no longer tied to the life of the physical medium. This is giant step beyond a "video capture" or a "video file".

True Virtualization of a video file (i.e., Virtual Video™ file) means the video file itself is layered inside a "digital container" -- like a virtual disc -- which insolates the video images from the decline of physical media, physical playback devices, or proprietary software -- tied to physical hardware or computer.

We take Virtualization a step further. We layer your entire "video library" in a transparent "virtual drive" -- again another "first" in the Video Preservation Industry. This makes the entire drive -- portable -- to any other storage device or storage medium -- now -- or in the future.

Virtual video is as much "concept" as it is "technology". The concept of "Virtual Diversity"™ (more below) spans many video formats and "digital video containers". It is "independent" of media structure and proprietary CODECs. It's sole purpose is to replicate -- over many mediums and -- survive -- many decades.

A "Virtual Film™ Transfer" -- we call it HomeFlix™ (our domestic brand name) and VirtualFlix™ (our commercial brand name) -- does for "home movies", what Netflix, Apple TV is doing for the "commercial video movies".

"Virtual Diversity"™


Video from a Virtual Film™ Transfer is "universally compatible" -- which means the Virtual Video™ library -- a carefully selected mix of Diversified Virtual Video™ formats (i.e. referred to as Virtual Diversity™) -- works with many media and many devices.

For example, take a common DVD.

With "Virtual Diversity"™, we explode the possibility of DVD into

Our DVD Virtualization™ explodes -- and exploits -- the common DVD disc -- to the next level of technical evolution.

"Virtual Video"™ -- is the FUTURE of the DVD format -- freed from the OLD "discs technology" of the PAST.

And that is just "DVD Virtual Diversity"™.

We do "virtually" the same thing -- with Blu-ray, H.264/MP4 video, and commercial grade "master files".


FORWARD COMPATIBILITY means a Virtual Film™ Transfer can be preserved "Virtually For EVER™".

When in a "free digital state" -- the "life of video" is "timeless. That is because the video is inside a "virtual (digital) container" -- instead of "captured" to a degrading or obsoleting physical medium.

In a "free digital state", the video is liberated

For example, a Virtual DVD requires NO PHYSICAL DISC and thus requires NO PHYSICAL DISC PLAYER.

This "free state" means (makes) the video "cheap and easy" to replicate.

This "free state" creates "New Product Opportunity™" -- to innovate the Virtual Video™ format into NEW mediums and devices -- as new technologies evolve in the future.


This "free state" means, a Virtual Film™ Transfer is both "forward compatible" AND "backward compatible" -- now and in the future -- with any medium and any device that can store it.

To this "free state" Virtual Reality, we have added an on-board "media player" and "tutorial" -- as part of the Virtual Drive (i.e., Virtual Container™ Library) -- which is compatible with Mac or PC computer platforms.

For now, we are the only studio offering True Virtual Transfers™ -- now -- and having over a 5 year head-start on any other company in the Film Transfer Industry.

Our Virtual Video™ Preservation Method meets -- and exceeds -- Public Archive Standards of the National Archives and Records Administration and the Library of Congress.

To Really Screw-up a Film Transfer
Use a Telecine Machine that is "Too Good to be True"!™

(Dirty Little Secrets "Transfer Mills™" Do NOT Want YOU to KNOW!)

Introduction to the Telecine Machine

A "telecine machine" is last century's technology. Telecine was type of film projector that played movie film into a Television camera -- instead of onto a screen.

Thus the name "Telecine".

In order to even talk about telecine machines, you need to understand a little about movie film.

You most likely own the following movie film:

In short, you own "small format" movie film -- designed to run "slower" than 24 fps.

The slower frame rates of small format films (16 frames per second and 18 frames per second), made it both mathematically and mechanically impossible to use standard "2:3 pull-down telecine machines" -- to re-create "True-to-Life" motion.

Math Proof: There are no prime number combination for 30 or for 60 that include the numbers 16 and 18.

Yet, that mathematical fact does not keep "film transfer mills" from selling the 2:3 pull-down services to "the poor" and to minorities - or "the ignorant". The results are video that runs too fast and/or, worse yet, has "judder".


By the time "telecine transfer" industry was targeting the "domestic market" -- when VHS tape was invented -- silent 16mm and 8mm had given way to Super 8 film.

Super 8 was best transferred to video tape at 20 fps.

20 fps became the "acceptable" speed for synchronizing both 16fps and 18fps movie film to video tape -- using dual gauge telecine machines.

15 fps telecine machines were rare, expensive, only good for 8mm movie film, not Super 8 film. They were slower to use, and therefore, not as profitable. They were used mainly in professional settings for commercial clients -- who could afford 15 fps transfer services.

Last century, most domestic movie film -- for the public, who did not know there was anything better -- was transferred at 20 fps.

Now, this century, we all know better -- and expect more.

However, running movie film "too fast" is quite literally -- "making a fast buck". For this reason, "big box" stores and pharmacies keep doing it!

These transfers are known (professionally) as a "poor man's transfer".


All "video professionals know", that a "single pass" machine can NOT begin to approach the higher quality of a "Professional Telecine Transfer".

This is because a "Professional Telecine Transfer", as you now know, too, is a multi-step process, of which "film transfer" is only one step.

Telecine Machines that "sound to good to be true" -- are -- and actually create more problems than they solve -- as you will soon learn.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Virtualization using Digital Algorithmic Interpolation™ (DAI), allows us to produce "True-to-Life Motion" at "True-to-Life Speed".

"The poor man" should never need to pay for a "poor man's transfer" again!


ALL "telecine machines" use "on the fly" "color correction" by means of


Automatic Color Correction can NOT compensate for the "pre-set color temperature" (i.e., color bias) of movie film


Automatic Color Correction DISTORTION is further complicated by

Automatic Color Correction

For example, under the best of film conditions,

In Layman's terms, using a "does-it-all-in-one-pass" telecine machine, you can kiss the "natural colors" of your movie films, "good-bye".


Telecine machines were designed to "synchronize" -- 24 frames of movie film per second (24fps) -- to a 30 frames per second (30fps) video signal.

This is done by inserting duplicated "video fields" or "video frames" to an INTERLACED video stream. 6 more frames or 12 more fields per second -- depending on the pull-down pattern.

This method is called 2:3 (or 3:2) pull-down because of the irregular physical shutter patterns. There were several variations on this shutter pattern -- none of which worked well with slower, small format films.

What you need to know is, 2:3 pull-down technology was designed to work ONLY with movie film "originally shot" at 24 frames per second.

What you also need to know is, 2:3 pull-down is inferior and obsolete -- to digital Digital Algorithmic Interpolation™ (DAI)-- synchronization technology of this century.

Finally, what you NEED to know is, you most likely do NOT own movie film originally shot at 24fps; therefore, you should grab you wallet and run from any company offering a film transfer -- with a telecine machine that has any "pull-down" technology.

Read on...

Telecine Machine Time / Motion Distortion

A "Telecine Machine" that "does-everything-in-a-single-pass" is the tool used by "big box stores" and "pharmacies" to exploit "the poor" and "the ignorant".

Most "small format" film telecine machines synchronize 20 full film frames of movie film per second -- into 60 interlaced video "fields" per second or -- into 60 progressive scan "frames" per second.

Although this translates into 30 video frames per second, the resulting video image is obviously -- WRONG -- and moving too fast!

This "speed distortion" is NOT in your original movie film.

This distortion is introduced by a "telecine machine".

Last century, this distortion was acceptable.

This century, this distortion is a "rip-off".

As you now know, to correct the speed distortion, many "telecine machines" use a 2:3 pull-down shutter patterns to insert extra frames of video -- to "slow down" the images.

You also know, 2:3 pull-down works BADLY with film shot at 16 or 18 frames per second -- like 8mm, Super8, and Silent 16mm movie films -- because it creates "judder" in the motion of the video image.

Again, it is obvious that something is "WRONG".

"Judder" is a "staggering effect" caused from duplicating (effectively freezing) frames of video. With "slow film", judder is very obvious to the human eye and gives many people headaches and eye strain.

"Two technical wrongs" do NOT make "a technical right".

Adapting "telecine machines" WITH HDTV, 2K and 4K CAMERAS -- adds a third layer of "WRONGS" -- as you will see later.

BOTTOM LINE: It is impossible for a "telecine machine" -- ALONE -- to synchronize SMALL FORMAT MOVIE FILM and achieve video at

These are just a few "Dirty Little Secrets". There are many more!


A "telecine film transfer machine" for "small format film" synchronizes film frames to video frames

At 20 fps, Super 8mm movie film runs 11% too fast

At 20 fps, Standard 8 and 16mm movie films run 25% too fast

Use of Progressive Scan at 60 fps, does not change these time distortions.


Transferring 60 frames per second, instead of 60 fields per second, does not change the fact that the original movie film was shot at 16 or 18 frames per second.

Therefore, capturing "progressive scan" video does not make any of the above problems go away.

What capturing "progressive scan" does introduce, is the problem of miss-matching a 3:4 ratio format film, to a 16:9 video format.

This creates a problems with HDTV, 2K and 4K displays -- which are NOT the fault of your movie film.


Don't get too excited, just because "telecine machines" can give you "master files".

Master files made from Telecine Machines can have all the technical distortions listed above. "Master files" from these machines can -- in no way -- be considered the "digital equivalent" of your original movie film.

A stand-alone "digital video file" is NOT a "Virtual Video™ file".

Most "master files" are "proprietary" -- which ties them to "software editing technology" on either a Mac or PC computer. Both the software and the hardware are subject to "technology shifts".

These files are NOT virtualized.

Passing "master files" -- which are vulnerable to technology shifts -- on to the next generation -- is a disservice -- especially with the current shift to "cloud technology" -- which will phase out the laptop computer -- and laptop software -- as we know it now.

For this reason, I caution the use of "nonlinear editor bound" video formats -- like ProRes. Yes, we use Macs.

My Commercial clients use ProRes for Commercial "master files"; however, these same clients use DVPro Progressive format for "master files" -- to pass-on to their families. They also love what we do with Virtual DVD™ Disc-IMAGE™ files.

Movie Film Terms and Misc.

8mm Films:

Since most readers have some "flavor" of 8mm movie film (Double 8, Standard 8 or slang - "regular 8mm movie film", AND Super 8 movie film) for simplicity of reading, I use the term 8mm film.

Super 8 film

Super 8, is an 8mm film, however, it has properties specific ONLY to Super 8 film, and when I use the term Super 8, I am excluding Double 8, Standard 8 or slang - "regular 8mm movie film".

16mm Movie Film:

A 16mm movie film transfer can be much more complex than a Standard 8mm movie film or Super 8mm movie film transfer -- because 16mm movie film was used both domestically (16fps silent) and commercially(24fps, sound) -- each purpose having its own "shooting speed".

For Example: 16mm SILENT movie film and 16mm SOUND movie film -- could be shot at 1 of 3 speeds -- even in the early century 1900s -- 16fps, 18fps, and 24fps.

We get 16mm film shot as all these speeds.

We have a very simple solution - a trade secret -- for assuring that the correct speed is used (more later) and insuring the highest quality of the 16mm format -- at any speed -- without speed/motion distortions.

Silent 16mm movie film is MUCH OLDER than 8mm or Super 8:

"Silent" 16mm is much older than either Super 8 Movie Film or Standard 8mm (Regular 8mm) movie film.

Silent 16mm film is usually in some stage of "vinegar syndrome"; thus 16mm film is thus "more brittle".

We help you determine if you have "vinegar syndrome" and, if so, what stage of "vinegar syndrome" your film is in.

After you receive our 16mm Film price quote (now a 16mm Virtual-Transfer™), you are entitled to call me about your 16mm movie film -- for a free 16mm movie film transfer "evaluation and consultation".

Be advised, you can NOT ALWAYS SMELL "vinegar syndrome" (more on this later).

Silent 16mm Movie Films and Standard 8mm Films

Reference to Virtualizing Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) -- also apply to 16mm movie film.

This is because Silent 16mm and Standard 8mm and Double 8mm film -- of the early 20th century -- are of the same chemical composition.

Also, both film formats were shot at 16 frames per second.

16mm Movie SOUND Films and Super 8 SOUND Movie Film:

Both 16mm SOUND Films and Super 8 SOUND film were both shot at either

All references to Virtualizing Super 8 SOUND Film -- also applies to 16mm SOUND Film.

Super 8 SOUND film typically has a "color shift" toward magenta and blue which requires aggressive color correction -- if not re-colorization.

Standardization of Movie Film Terms:

Official Terms:

Slang Terms: Mean the Same Thing

Official Terms:

Slang Terms: Mean the Same Thing

Standard 8mm film and Super 8mm film are the SAME "SIZE" FILM -- HOWEVER...

Movie Film:

Picture Below: 16mm Film, 8mm Film & Super 8 Film

<EM>16mm film</EM> 
    <EM>8mm film</EM><EM>Super 8mm</EM>film Film Transfer Comparisons

The following tutorial is for people new to

This primer will help you both identify and date 16mm film, Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film), and Super 8mm movie films that you have -- for film transfer.

IMPORTANT NOTE: The term "Regular 8" is slang which "generalizes" ALL 8mm movie film -- which is NOT Super 8. In general, in laymen's terms, "Regular 8" is convenient way to talk about movie film which is -- either 1) Standard 8mm movie film or 2) Double 8mm movie film or 3) BOTH or 4) NOT Super 8 film and NOT 16mm film (see below).

The term "Regular 8mm" film is used on the internet and by many lay people -- thus, I take licence to use it, too.

How to Identify, Date, and Speed-rate Your Movie film:

The following will help you organize your project chronologically from the oldest to the latest movie film reels.

General Chronology of Movie Film:

  1. 16mm Silent (1923) -- very large grain
  2. 8mm 25 foot Double Reel (1932) -- (2x25=50feet)
  3. 8mm Standard 8mm (50 feet)
  4. Super 8(Introduced in 1965)
  5. Super 8 Sound -- Magnetic Stripe and Balance Track (note the "balance track" was originally used to keep both edges of the film equal distance(flat) in transport over the shutter window. Later, the "balance track" was used for narration only or adding music only. It was NOT a "stereo track" as most people think.

Rough Dating of Movie film :

<EM>16mm film</EM> 
    <EM>8mm film</EM><EM>Super 8mm</EM>film Film Transfer Comparisons

Picture (Above) shows examples of most common "small format" movie films

16mm Silent Film:

16mm was invented before Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) and Super 8mm movie films.

16mm movie film was made from "hand-milled" Silver halide -- the grains of which were very large compared to later films.

Although 16mm is 4 times the size of Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) and Super 8mm movie film, the resolution of the film is comparable to that of Super 8mm movie film.

Silent 16mm movie film was shot and run at 16fps.

16mm SOUND movie film is run at 24 fps -- which actually makes 16mm movie film a "hybrid" format -- with one foot in the "small format film industry" and one foot in the "large format film industry".

8mm Film -- 25 foot DOUBLE REEL:

Double 8 was sold as 25 feet of 16mm movie film.

8mm Film Boxes of "double 8" for <EM>8mm film</EM> Transfer

Double 8 movie film came in a yellow box roughly 1 inch thick.

The yellow box contained a small back metal canister -- sealed with black cotton tape -- to protect the brown, unexposed 16mm movie film inside.

It was called a "25 foot Double 8mm" -- but in the end, it was literally remanufactured (2 x 25 = 50) into 50 feet of 8mm movie.

The 16mm movie film was "double exposed" -- in 2 passes. One pass -- exposed ONLY an 8mm wide zone along the entire length of the 16mm wide film. The cameraman would then flip the 16mm movie film in the camera -- to shoot the second pass -- which exposed the remaining 8mm zone of film -- the entire length of the film.

At the time of film processing, the 16mm movie film was developed and then split down the center -- thus creating 2 each -- 25 feet long strips -- of film 8mm movie film.

The two 25 foot lengths of movie film were then glued together -- creating a 50 foot spool of 8mm movie film (shown below).

This is why many Standard 8mm films have a "splice" half way through the 50 feet of film.

Flipping the reel in the camera had two "bad results".

  1. The film is exposed to "raw light" -- creating "blow-out -- in the middle of the movie film. This also accounts for the "flashes of yellow light" half-way through early Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film)s.

  2. If the cameraman forgot -- if he flipped the reel or not -- then
    • If he chose to NOT run the reel, then half of the reel would be "black".
    • If he chose to run the reel again, the a "double exposure" would result -- trashing 2 exposure attempts.

All 3 reels above are Double 8mm 25 foot movie film spools. The grey spool, above, was the same reel used for "Standard 8mm" film -- when it was released (see below).

Not seen, is the "square hole" on the bottom side of both the aluminum reel and the cardboard reel.

NOTE: The grey plastic reel NEVER had a square component. Thus grey plastic reels always post-date metal and cardboard reels.


Double 8mm & Standard 8mm Movie films

  1. (left top) Double 8mm 25 foot movie film reel -- aluminum (shown) or black metal reel (not shown) (pre-WWII), or

  2. (center bottom) Double 8mm 25 foot movie film reel a cardboard reel (WWII), or

  3. (right top) Double 8mm 25 foot movie film OR Standard 8mm movie film reel -- a grey plastic reel (post-WWII)

Double 8mm 25 foot movie film was shipped back to owner in the same oversize yellow box -- as an 8mm high reel filling the width and length of the box -- but filling only half the height of the 16mm high yellow box.

WARNING: Because of the dual purpose of the box -- it "looks too big for the reel", many people wrongly assume the reel is in the "wrong box". This is one of the major reasons reels become disassociated from the correct box -- and correct documentation.

Standard 8mm Movie Film:

In the1950s Kodak released a solid 50 foot strip of film onto the same plastic grey reels (above right); however, the little yellow box (not shown) was only half the width of the yellow Double 8mm box (above).

Single 8(not pictured) also called Standard 8 came in a yellow box roughly 1/2 inch thick.

Both types of films -- collectively -- are called Standard 8mm movie film (or Regular 8mm movie film) or Standard 8mm movie film and, before 1965, usually fond on little grey plastic reels -- with excepts around 1942 (see history below), and 1965 (more follows)..

About that same time (1965), Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) began to appear spooled onto white plastic reels with blue covers, too.. The hole in those spools was the size of a number 2 pencil or standard pen. Most easily confused with Super 8mm movie film.

IMPORTANT: It is very common for Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) to be on a Super 8mm movie spool and Super 8mm movie film, on a Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) spool -- by mistake of family members. When in doubt, look at the film itself -- and the size of the holes in the film -- not the spool.

Correct Film Transfer Speeds of 16mm and 8mm films:

A "telecine film transfer machine" for "small format film" synchronizes film frames to video frames

At 20 fps, Super 8mm movie film runs 11% too fast

At 20 fps, Standard 8 and 16mm movie films run 25% too fast

Use of Progressive Scan at 60 fps, does not change these time distortions.

Super 8 Film Sound for Film Transfer

NOTE: Super 8 Sound film (above) has "magnetic" Sound tracks glued on both edges of the "under-side" of the film which looks like 2 copper colored stripes.

<EM>16mm film</EM> Optical Sound track for Film Transfer

Commercial Film (above):
Super 8mm movie Sound and 16mm Sound:

"optical" Sound tracks. See the two black squiggly tracks on the left above. These tacks are actually "visible analogue waves" running the entire length of the reel of movie film. The "look" just like a "sound track" on your non-linear editor.

Both 16mm movie film -- and Super 8mm movie film -- COMMERCIAL films, were "shot and run" at 24 fps - ONLY.

IMPORTANT NOTE: 24 frames per second films (16mm SOUND and Commercial Super 8 Sound) were the ONLY films that could be "transferred" using 2:3 pull-down methods -- with out creating profound "judder". The use of 2:3 pull-down on films shot at 16fps and 18fps were completely distorted with "judder" -- a staggering affect in motion -- which is permanent and can NOT be removed.

Most domestic clients, with rare exceptions, do NOT have "commercial films" with "optical sound tracks".

DIRTY LITTLE SECRET: Most transfer mills use "telecine machines" with 2:3 pull-down motion. Some go as far as to "charge extra" for this service -- when in fact, it adds a profound motion distortion.

You should grab your wallet and run -- when 2:3 pull-down is recommended for your any of your movie film.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Our "Virtualization" method does NOT use any 2:3 pull-down method AND we are able to resolve motion to smooth, "True-to-Life" -- speed and motion.

Even for 16mm Sound or Commercial Super 8 Sound, we have a proprietary virtualization method that is BETTER than ANY 2:3 pull-down technology. And allows slow-motion post-production and special effects -- which can NOT be use with 2:3 pull-down transfers.

<EM>16mm film</EM> <EM>8mm film</EM><EM>Super 8mm</EM>film for Film Transfer

Holes Along the Edge of the film (see picture above):

NOTE: The size of the holes are the same for both 16mm movie film and Standard 8mm movie film. (Top and Middle films)

Some 16mm has only one set of holes -- on only one edge of the film -- like Regular 8 film.

Spacing of the holes in 16mm movie film is different than Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) -- also called Standard 8 film; however, there is still only 1 hole per frame.

Super 8mm movie film has smaller holes - less than half the size of Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) movie film. Spacing is different.

Correct Film Transfer is very different for each type of movie film and the variations within each type of film.

Reels also called Spools

Hole in Center of Reel or Spool:

Early 16mm and Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film): the hole in a spool was

  1. the size of a number 2 pencil -- on one side of the spool -- and
  2. square and roughly the same size -- on the other side of the spool.

(see Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) pictures below):

Later, 16mm spools standardized with a square hole.

Later, Standard 8mm movie film (slang - regular 8mm movie film) spools standardized with a round hole -- with a notch on one side of the reel or both.

Standard 8mm movie film , 95 percent of the time, is on a grey plastic, 3 inch spool and came in a Yellow cardboard box -- for mailing.

Below: Pictures of Super 8 movie reels

Super 8mm movie spool: The hole in the spool was the size of your "pinky finger" and round on both sides of the spool.

Super 8 movie film (introduced in 1965) was sold and processed on 50 foot spools -- which were usually a blue cover with a white plastic spool.. Rarely covers were also red, yellow, green, black, and white.

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